Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5–many, pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 1–5
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332,344–401,611–662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.



Barbara Ertter

Annual to shrub; odor resinous or 0
Leaves generally basal, odd-1-pinnate to 1-palmate or 1-ternate; leaflets ± toothed or lobed, terminal generally ± = lateral
Inflorescence: cyme, generally ± open; pedicels generally ± straight
Flower: hypanthium ± shallow; bractlets 5; sepals generally 5, ± triangular; petals generally 5, generally = or > sepals, generally ± widely obcordate, generally yellow; stamens generally 20; pistils generally many, styles generally jointed near tip
Fruit: achene
Species in genus: 200–500 species: n temp
Etymology: (Latin: diminutive of powerful, for reputed medicinal value)
Reference: [Clausen, Keck, & Hiesey 1940 Carn Inst Wash Pub 520:26–195]
P. anglica Laicharding is a waif from cultivated: stem trailing; pedicels 2–8 cm, slender; sepals and petals generally 4; leaflets 3–5.


P. gracilis Hook.

Plant tufted from short, thick rhizome; glands generally 0 or hidden
Stem ± ascending, generally 20–100 cm, strigose to spreading-hairy
Leaves palmate; basal generally 6–30 cm, leaflets generally 5–7, central leaflet ± oblanceolate, toothed or lobed ± throughout, hairy especially below
Inflorescence few–many-flowered
Flower: hypanthium generally 3–5 mm wide; petals generally 4–10 mm; filaments 1.5–2.5 mm, anthers 0.6–1.6 mm; styles 1.5–2 mm, slender
Fruit 1–1.5 mm, smooth, light brown
Chromosomes: 2n=52–109
Ecology: Common. Meadows, open forests
Elevation: 120–3500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California (except sw), Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: w N.America
Variation complex; many but not all plants are assignable to the following extremes.


var. elmeri (Rydb.) Jeps.

Hairs generally appressed
Stem generally 20–50 cm
Leaves: basal central leaflet 20–60 mm, generally tomentose below, lobed > 3/4 to midvein, lobes often narrowest at base, entire
Flower: petals 5–8 mm
Chromosomes: n=21
Ecology: Dry meadows
Elevation: 1280–3050 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: w N.America
Synonyms: P. pectinisecta Rydb.; P. flabelliformis Lehm. var. inyoensis Jeps

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