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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5–many, pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 1–5
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332,344–401,611–662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.



Barbara Ertter

Perennial from short rhizomes and leafless stolons, ± nonglandular
Leaves basal, 1-ternate; leaflet teeth generally simple
Inflorescence: cyme, ± umbel-like, open, 1–several-flowered; pedicels recurved in fruit
Flower: hypanthium shallow; bractlets 5; sepals 5; petals 5, ± obovate, generally white; stamens 20–35, filaments ± flat; pistils many, ovaries superior, jointed to stout style on side
Fruit: receptacle enlarged, fleshy, red, incompletely covered with achenes
Species in genus: 15–30 species: generally n temp
Etymology: (Latin: fragrant)
Reference: [Hancock & Bringhurst 1981 Amer J Bot 68:1–5]
Hair orientation and plant size have been used to define subspp. but seem to have no taxonomic significance, at least in CA. All species intergrade.


F. virginiana Duchesne


Often dioecious
Stem 2–12 cm
Leaf thin; petiole generally 1–12 cm; central leaflet stalk 1–3 mm, blade generally 15–60 mm, obovate, rounded to truncate, teeth generally 7–11, above middle, ± obtuse, central tooth << adjacent ones; leaflets generally glabrous above, ± hairy below
Inflorescence < leaves
Flower ± 10–20 mm wide; bractlets unlobed; sepals 3–6 mm; petals 4–9 mm
Fruit: receptacle ± 10 mm; achene ± 1.5 mm
Chromosomes: n=28
Ecology: Meadows, forest openings
Elevation: generally 1200–3300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to e N.America
Synonyms: subsp. platypetala (Rydb.) Staudt
Plants of c SNH (Yosemite Valley) are unusually large
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 6 &IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 15, 16, 18; GRCVR.

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