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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5–many, pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 1–5
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332,344–401,611–662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.



Barbara Ertter

Perennial from short rhizomes and leafless stolons, ± nonglandular
Leaves basal, 1-ternate; leaflet teeth generally simple
Inflorescence: cyme, ± umbel-like, open, 1–several-flowered; pedicels recurved in fruit
Flower: hypanthium shallow; bractlets 5; sepals 5; petals 5, ± obovate, generally white; stamens 20–35, filaments ± flat; pistils many, ovaries superior, jointed to stout style on side
Fruit: receptacle enlarged, fleshy, red, incompletely covered with achenes
Species in genus: 15–30 species: generally n temp
Etymology: (Latin: fragrant)
Reference: [Hancock & Bringhurst 1981 Amer J Bot 68:1–5]
Hair orientation and plant size have been used to define subspp. but seem to have no taxonomic significance, at least in CA. All species intergrade.


F. chiloensis (L.) Duchesne


Often dioecious
Stem generally 5–20 cm
Leaf leathery; petiole generally 2–20 cm; central leaflet stalk 1–10 mm, blade 10–60 mm, obovate, densely hairy below, generally glabrous above, rounded to truncate, teeth generally 7–11, above middle, rounded-obtuse, central tooth << adjacent ones
Inflorescence < or > leaves
Flower generally 20–40 mm wide; bractlets unlobed; sepals 6–10 mm; petals 8–18 mm
Fruit: receptacle 10–20 mm; achene 1.5–2 mm, smooth
Chromosomes: n=28
Ecology: Ocean beaches, grassland
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Central Coast
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, also coastal S.America, Hawaii
Cult and possible escape in SCo
Synonyms: subsp. pacifica Staudt
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5 &IRR: 7, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24 &SHD: 8, 9, 14, 19, 20, 21; GRCVR; CVS.

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