Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5–many, pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 1–5
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332,344–401,611–662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.



Richard Lis

Shrub or small tree, evergreen
Stem: trunk < 80 cm diam; bark generally gray to reddish brown; twigs short
Leaves generally clustered, simple; stipules often deciduous; blade ± thin to leathery, entire to toothed, upper surface generally ± glabrous
Inflorescence: clusters; flowers 1–12
Flower: hypanthium funnel-like, tube persistent in fruit, rim cup-like, deciduous; petals 0; stamens 10–45, in 2–3 rows on hypanthium rim, anthers glabrous or hairy; pistil 1, free from hypanthium tube, ovary superior, 1-ovuled, style terminal, persistent in fruit, straight or becoming twisted, plumose
Fruit: achene, cylindric, hairy, included in hypanthium
Species in genus: 13 species: w North America, Mex
Etymology: (Greek: tailed fruit)
Reference: [Lis 1992 Int J Plant Sci 153:258–272]


C. betuloides Torr. & A. Gray

Shrub or small tree 2–8 m; branches spreading to erect
Leaf: petiole 1–10 mm; blade 1–8 cm, widely elliptic to obovate, ± thin, ± entire to serrate, sparsely hairy below; lateral veins 4–10
Inflorescence: flowers 1–12
Flower: hypanthium glabrous to sparsely hairy; stamens 25–45, anthers hairy; style included, stigma straight
Fruit 8–12 mm, strigose; style 5–10 cm
Ecology: Chaparral, pine/oak woodland, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Channel Islands, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon, Arizona, Baja California

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