This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5many, pistils (0)1many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 15
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 15
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303332,344401,611662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.
Leaves generally ± basal, odd-1-pinnate; leaflets ± evenly toothed to lobed
Inflorescence: dense spike or head
Flower: hypanthium ± conic; bractlets 0; sepals generally 4; petals 0; stamens 2 or 4, opposite sepals; pistils 1(2), ovaries superior, continuous to style at top, stigma many-branched, exserted from hypanthium
Fruit: hypanthium ± hardened, encasing elliptic achenes; prickles generally 4many, barbed
Species in genus: 50150 species: especially s hemisphere
Etymology: (Greek: thorn, from fruit)
Reference: [Yeo 1973 Bot Soc British Isles Conf Rep 13:193221]
Stem: flower-stem 1060 cm
Leaf 312 cm; stipules 0; leaflets 58 per side, 415 mm, ± oblanceolate-ovate, lobed nearly to midvein into 38 linear-lanceolate segments
Inflorescence: spike 1020 mm diam, ± oblong
Flower: sepals 2.53.5 mm, elliptic-lanceolate; stamens generally 4, purple-black
Fruit: hypanthium body 47 mm, obovate, ± ridged; prickles > 4, scattered, generally 13 mm
Ecology: Coastal grassland, open, rocky slopes
Elevation: 50400 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast, Central Coast, w San Francisco Bay Area
Synonyms: A. c. Bitter
South America plants (var. p.) variable
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 15, 16, 17 &IRR: 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|