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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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RHAMNACEAE

BUCKTHORN FAMILY

John O. Sawyer, Jr. (except Ceanothus)

Shrub, vine, tree, generally erect, often thorny
Leaves simple, generally alternate, often clustered on short-shoots, generally petioled, generally stipuled; blade often 1–3-ribbed from base
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium subtending, surrounding, or partly fused to ovary; sepals 4 or 5; petals 0, 4, or 5, clawed; stamens 4 or 5, alternate sepals, attached to hypanthium top, each generally fitting into a petal concavity; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 2–5, each 1–2-ovuled, style lobes or parts 1–3
Fruit: capsule, drupe
Genera in family: 55 genera, 900 species: especially tropical, subtropical; some cultivated (Ceanothus ; Colletia , anchor-plant; Gouania ; Phylica ; Rhamnus ; Ventilago ; Ziziphus )
Reference: [Brizicky 1965 J Arnold Arbor 45:439–463]

CEANOTHUS

CALIFORNIA-LILAC

Clifford L. Schmidt

Shrub, small tree, prostrate to erect, thorny or not
Stem: branches generally arranged as leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite, deciduous or evergreen, petioled; blade 1–3-ribbed from base, margin entire or not
Inflorescence: generally panicle-like aggregations of umbel-like, 3-flowered clusters
Flower generally < 5 mm; hypanthium surrounding fleshy disk below ovary base, in fruit thick, not splitting; sepals generally 5, lanceolate-deltate, incurved, colored like petals, persistent; petals generally 5, hooded, white to deep blue; stamens generally 5, opposite petals; ovary superior, 3-lobed, chambers 3, each 1-ovuled, style parts 3
Fruit: capsule, ± spheric, 3-valved
Seeds 3, ± 3 mm, 1 surface convex
Species in genus: 45 species: North America, especially w
Etymology: (Greek: thorny plant)
Reference: [Rensselaer & McMinn 1942 Ceanothus Santa Barbara Bot Gard 1–308]
Hybridization common (named hybrids not recognized here); hybrid forms may not key adequately.

Native

C. velutinus Dougl.


Stem: twigs round, brown, ± puberulent, becoming dark brown
Leaves alternate, evergreen, aromatic, < 8 cm; stipules deciduous; petiole < 18 mm; blade widely elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 3-ribbed from base, tip obtuse, margin gland-toothed, upper surface dark green, ± shiny, glabrous, lower paler
Inflorescence panicle-like, < 12 cm
Flower white
Fruit 3–4 mm, 3-lobed
Ecology: Open, wooded slopes
Elevation: < 3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, n San Francisco Bay Area, Warner Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada (except White and Inyo Mountains)
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, South Dakota

Native

var. hookeri M.C. Johnst.

Plant tree-like or not, < 6 m
Leaf: lower surface glabrous
Fruit ± rough; valve crests minute
Ecology: Near coast
Elevation: < 900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, n San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Synonyms: var. laevigatus (Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray
Horticultural information: DRN: 5, 6, 15, 16, 17 &IRR: 7, 14.

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