|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0many, free; stamens generally 10many; pistils 1many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ),
some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:2427]
Perennial from caudex or rhizomes, dioecious or flowers bisexual, generally glabrous
Stems 1few, generally erect; branches 0 or few
Leaves generally 14-ternate, basal or basal and cauline, generally reduced upwards, petioled; segments wedge-shaped, fan-shaped, or ± round; upper surface generally green; lower surface pale green
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, axillary or terminal, generally erect; pedicels generally erect in fruit; bracts simple to 1-ternate
Flower radial; sepals 45, generally green, petal-like or not, often early deciduous; petals 0; stamens 8many, generally > sepals, anthers generally narrowly oblong, tip generally abruptly pointed, filaments generally thread-like; pistils 220
Fruit: achenes, compressed laterally to not, ribbed or veined, beaked
Species in genus: ± 80 species: temp North America, Eurasia, Africa; some ornamental, medicinal
Etymology: (Greek: name given by Dioscorides, Greek physician-botanist)
Reference: [Boivin 1944 Rhodora 46:337377,391445,453487]
Plant 60200 cm, generally dioecious
Leaves basal and cauline, 746 cm; segments 820 mm, glabrous to finely glandular-puberulent, tip acute to rounded
Inflorescence: panicle, leafy to bracted above
Flower: sepals generally 4, 25 mm, greenish white to purplish; stamens 1528
Fruits 720, spreading to ascending; body 48 mm, side with 13 ± curved ribs, 0 or several wavy veins
Ecology: Moist, open to shaded places, woodland, forest
Elevation: < 3200 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, South Coast, Channel Islands), Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Wyoming, Texas, n Mexico
Some plants in NCoR have some bisexual flowers; vars. in CA difficult, need study.
Leaf: lower surface generally glabrous
Fruit: body compressed laterally generally only near margins, side obliquely and ± widely obovate to ± circular, with generally 1 rib, several veins
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Elevation: < 1000 m (1500 in SN).
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada (very uncommon), Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, w Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Washington
Synonyms: T. p. (Torr.) S. Watson
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 6 &IRR: 15, 16, 17 &SHD: 7, 9, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.