This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0many, free; stamens generally 10many; pistils 1many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ),
some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:2427]
Perennial from caudex or rhizomes, dioecious or flowers bisexual, generally glabrous
Stems 1few, generally erect; branches 0 or few
Leaves generally 14-ternate, basal or basal and cauline, generally reduced upwards, petioled; segments wedge-shaped, fan-shaped, or ± round; upper surface generally green; lower surface pale green
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, axillary or terminal, generally erect; pedicels generally erect in fruit; bracts simple to 1-ternate
Flower radial; sepals 45, generally green, petal-like or not, often early deciduous; petals 0; stamens 8many, generally > sepals, anthers generally narrowly oblong, tip generally abruptly pointed, filaments generally thread-like; pistils 220
Fruit: achenes, compressed laterally to not, ribbed or veined, beaked
Species in genus: ± 80 species: temp North America, Eurasia, Africa; some ornamental, medicinal
Etymology: (Greek: name given by Dioscorides, Greek physician-botanist)
Reference: [Boivin 1944 Rhodora 46:337377,391445,453487]
Plant 60200 cm, generally dioecious
Leaves basal and cauline, 746 cm; segments 820 mm, glabrous to finely glandular-puberulent, tip acute to rounded
Inflorescence: panicle, leafy to bracted above
Flower: sepals generally 4, 25 mm, greenish white to purplish; stamens 1528
Fruits 720, spreading to ascending; body 48 mm, side with 13 ± curved ribs, 0 or several wavy veins
Ecology: Moist, open to shaded places, woodland, forest
Elevation: < 3200 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, South Coast, Channel Islands), Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Wyoming, Texas, n Mexico
Some plants in NCoR have some bisexual flowers; vars. in CA difficult, need study.
Leaf: lower surface generally glabrous
Fruit: body compressed laterally generally only near margins, side obliquely and ± widely obovate to ± circular, with generally 1 rib, several veins
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Elevation: < 1000 m (1500 in SN).
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada (very uncommon), Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, w Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Washington
Synonyms: T. p. (Torr.) S. Watson
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 6 &IRR: 15, 16, 17 &SHD: 7, 9, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|