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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specified

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, free; stamens generally 10–many; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1–many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1–many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ), some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:24–27]



Annual, perennial herb, sometimes from stolons or caudices, terrestrial or aquatic; roots generally fibrous
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves basal and generally cauline, generally reduced upwards, generally glabrous; petiole base flat, stipule-like or not; basal and lower cauline petioles generally long; blades simple to dissected or compound, entire to toothed
Inflorescence: cyme, axillary or terminal, 1–few-flowered
Flower radial; sepals generally 5, generally early deciduous, generally glabrous, generally green to yellowish; petals generally 5, generally > sepals, generally white to yellow, shiny; nectar gland near petal base, pocket-like or with flap-like scale; anthers yellow; pistils generally many
Fruit: achene, generally compressed, beaked, generally glabrous; walls thick
Species in genus: ± 250 species: temp worldwide, tropical mtns; some ornamental
Etymology: (Latin: (Pliny) little frog, from generally wet habitats)


R. repens L.

Perennial 10–60 cm
Stem prostrate to ascending, rooting at lower nodes, stolon-like or not, branched; hairs 0 to rough
Leaves glabrous to hairy; basal and lower cauline petioles 4–20 cm, blades 1.5–8 cm, ovate to cordate, generally 1-ternate, leaflets coarsely lobed to toothed; upper cauline leaves smaller
Flower: receptacle puberulent; sepals 5–7 mm, hairs short, soft; petals 8–14 mm, 5–10 mm wide
Fruits 17–many; cluster spheric; body 2–3 mm, sides 1.5–2 mm wide, smooth, back faintly keeled; beak ± 1 mm, curved
Chromosomes: 2n=32
Ecology: Waste areas, ditches, wet fields
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Cascade Range, c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, n South Coast, expected elsewhere
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e N.America; native to Europe
Plants with weakly stoloned, erect stems, many petals, probably escaped from cultivated, have been called var. pleniflorus Fernald

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