Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specified

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, free; stamens generally 10–many; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1–many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1–many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ), some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:24–27]



Annual, perennial herb, sometimes from stolons or caudices, terrestrial or aquatic; roots generally fibrous
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves basal and generally cauline, generally reduced upwards, generally glabrous; petiole base flat, stipule-like or not; basal and lower cauline petioles generally long; blades simple to dissected or compound, entire to toothed
Inflorescence: cyme, axillary or terminal, 1–few-flowered
Flower radial; sepals generally 5, generally early deciduous, generally glabrous, generally green to yellowish; petals generally 5, generally > sepals, generally white to yellow, shiny; nectar gland near petal base, pocket-like or with flap-like scale; anthers yellow; pistils generally many
Fruit: achene, generally compressed, beaked, generally glabrous; walls thick
Species in genus: ± 250 species: temp worldwide, tropical mtns; some ornamental
Etymology: (Latin: (Pliny) little frog, from generally wet habitats)


R. orthorhynchus Hook.

Perennial 15–50(85) cm; roots ± thick, tapered
Stem ascending to erect, branched throughout, glabrous to hairy
Leaves glabrous to hairy; basal and lower cauline petioles 6–20 (25) cm, blades 3.5–10 cm, ovate to cordate, generally 1-ternate or -pinnate, leaflets 3–7, coarsely toothed; upper cauline leaves smaller
Flower: receptacle hairs short, stiff; sepals 6–10 mm, reflexed, hairs 0 to short, soft; petals 5–8, 10–20 mm, 4–7 mm wide
Fruits 4–many; cluster spheric; body 2–4 mm, sides 2–3 mm wide, smooth; keel weak; beak 2–4 mm, ± straight
Chromosomes: n=16
Ecology: Meadows, wet, open areas, scrub, woodland, or forest
Elevation: < 2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except s San Joaquin Valley, South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California), Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Montana, Wyoming
Other vars. in AK, B.C.


var. bloomeri (S. Watson) L.D. Benson

Plant 15–45 cm
Leaves: basal and lower cauline ovate to cordate, glabrous, leaflets ovate to ± round
Flower: petals 10–17 mm, 4–8 mm wide, slightly obcordate
Ecology: Clay soils, wet meadows, flats
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, North Coast Ranges, deltaic Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Horticultural information: SUN, IRRorWET: 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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