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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specified

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, free; stamens generally 10–many; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1–many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1–many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ), some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:24–27]


Perennial from clustered, slender to fusiform or ± spheric, fleshy roots, glabrous
Stem ascending to erect; branches 0–few
Leaves 1–3- ternate; leaflet upper surface green, lower surface pale green to glaucous, segments generally wedge-shaped; basal 0–few, petioles generally > blade; cauline petioles short to ± 0
Inflorescence: cyme, flat-topped, to flowers solitary in CA, terminal or axillary
Flower bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, petal-like; petals generally 0; stamens 10–many; pistils 2–many, stalk-like base 0 or short
Fruit: follicles, glabrous; veins obvious, stalk-like base 0 to obvious, curved or not; beak straight to recurved
Seed brown, smooth to wrinkled
Species in genus: ± 30 species: temp North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name, from grain-like fruit)
Reference: [Calder & Taylor 1963 Madroño 17:69–76]


I. occidentale Hook. & Arn.

Plant 8–25 cm
Stems 1–3, erect, generally simple
Leaf 1–2-ternate, 3–12 cm; segment lobes 2–3, generally < 1/2 segment length
Flower: sepals 3–6 mm wide, white to pink; stamens 2–5.5 mm; pistils 3–5
Fruit 10–12 mm
Ecology: Shaded slopes, chaparral, oak woodland, coniferous forest
Elevation: 400–1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except Central Coast), n Western Transverse Ranges
Horticultural information: SHD, DRN: 7, 15, 16; DFCLT.

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