|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0many, free; stamens generally 10many; pistils 1many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ),
some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:2427]
Perennial; root generally < 10 cm, ± fibrous or fleshy; buds generally obscure
Stem generally 1, erect, generally unbranched; base generally ± as wide as root, generally firmly attached to root, generally ± reddish or purplish
Leaves simple, basal and cauline, petioled; blades generally palmately lobed, deep lobes generally 35, generally < 6 mm wide, generally also lobed; lower leaves generally dry, often 0 in flower; cauline merging into bracts upward
Inflorescence: raceme or somewhat branched, terminal; flowers generally 1025; pedicels generally ± spreading
Flower bilateral; sepals 5, petal-like, generally spreading, generally ± dark blue, uppermost spurred; petals 4, << sepals, upper 2 with nectar-secreting spurs enclosed in uppermost sepal, lower 2 clawed, with blades generally 48 mm, notched, generally ± perpendicular to claws, generally colored like sepals, generally obviously hairy; pistils 3(5)
Fruit aggregate of 3(5) erect follicles, generally 2.54 X longer than wide
Seed dark brown to black, often appearing white, generally winged when immature, generally without inflated collar; coat cell margins generally straight
Etymology: (Latin: dolphin, from bud shape)
Reference: [Lewis & Epling 1954 Brittonia 8:122]
Hybrids common, especially in disturbed places. Root length here includes coarse but not thread-like parts. Most species highly TOXIC, attractive and causing many deaths to cattle, less often to horses, sheep.
Horticultural information: Exc as noted, successful In cultivation only within natural range and habitat. Lowland subsp.: DRY. Upland species: winter chilling required.
Root sometimes > 10 cm
Stem 15110 (generally < 80) cm, generally curled-puberulent, especially below
Leaves generally curled-puberulent; basal present or 0 in flower; lobes 527, generally < 6 mm at widest
Inflorescence: flowers 360; pedicels 568 mm, 850 mm apart, ± ascending, generally puberulent
Flower: sepals reflexed or not, lateral 925 mm, spur 821 mm; lower petal blades 310 mm
Fruit 1019 mm
Seed winged, otherwise ± bumpy
Ecology: Chaparral, open woodlands
Elevation: 02600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Tehachapi Mountain Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Root generally > 10 cmSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Leaves basal and cauline in flower, mostly on lower third of stem; lobes 320
Flower: sepals generally reflexed, purplish or dark blue, lateral 711 mm, spur 1013 mm; lower petal blades 35 mm
Fruit 1015 mm
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Sagebrush scrub, dry chaparral
Elevation: 10002600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Tehachapi Mountain Area, Western Transverse Ranges
Synonyms: D. parishii subsp. p. F.H. Lewis & Epling
May be threatened by development
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY; DFCLT.