|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Perennial 2.510 dm; roots creeping
Stem generally simple below, few-branched above, white-tomentose
Leaves thinly gray-tomentose above, white-tomentose below; lower 1025 cm, tapered to spiny petioles, elliptic to oblanceolate, deeply lobed, lobes generally rigidly spreading, simple or with 24 ± narrow 2° lobes or coarse teeth, main spines 310 mm; middle and upper gradually reduced, decurrent as spiny-margined wings, generally very spiny, spines 515 mm
Inflorescence: heads 1few in cymes; peduncles 010 cm, leafy; involucres 2.53.5 cm, 23.5 cm diam, ± ovoid to bell-shaped, ± loosely tomentose, becoming glabrous; phyllaries strongly graduated (outer ovate, inner oblong), minutely roughened or toothed, tightly appressed, midribs of middle phyllaries often with glandular area, spines 512 mm, stout, spreading to reflexed, inner with tips erect or recurved, ± twisted, flat, sometimes ± expanded and fringed
Flowers: corollas 2937 mm, white to pale lavender or pink, tube 1417 mm, throat 710 mm, lobes 811 mm
Fruit 78 mm, light brown, ± thick; pappus 2530 mm
Ecology: Disturbed places, fields
Elevation: < 1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: n North Coast, Klamath Ranges, e Sierra Nevada, n Channel Islands, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau, White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: native to c US
Flowering time: AprJul
Hybridizes with C. undulatum.Weedy.