|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Perennial 210 dm; taproot woody
Stem often > 1 from base, thinly tomentose, sometimes ± glabrous
Leaves ± tomentose (especially below), becoming ± glabrous; lower 13 dm, tapered to spiny-winged petioles, oblong-elliptic, long-acute, divided ± to midvein, lobes with 24 narrow 2° lobes or coarse teeth, main spines 1030 mm; middle and upper sessile, not strongly reduced, clasping or short-decurrent, exceedingly spiny
Inflorescence: heads generally few, short-peduncled, ± closely subtended by uppermost leaves; involucres ± 3 cm, 1.52 cm diam when fresh, cylindric or narrowly ovoid, sparsely tomentose or becoming glabrous; phyllary bodies lanceolate to ± ovate, entire, tip spreading to erect, spines 2025 mm, inner with tips straight, flat or short-spiny, often red or purple, puberulent
Flowers exserted; corollas 2830 mm, ± rose-purple, tube 1114 mm, throat 46 mm, lobes 1213 mm
Fruit 56 mm, ± flattened, shiny brown; pappus 1820 mm
Ecology: Uncommon. Pinyon/juniper woodland
Elevation: 15002300 m.
Bioregional distribution: eastern Desert Mountains (Clark, New York mtns)
Flowering time: JulOct
The most spiny thistle in CA. Related to C. arizonicum.
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