|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Perennial 210 dm; taproot woody
Stem often > 1 from base, thinly tomentose, sometimes ± glabrous
Leaves ± tomentose (especially below), becoming ± glabrous; lower 13 dm, tapered to spiny-winged petioles, oblong-elliptic, long-acute, divided ± to midvein, lobes with 24 narrow 2° lobes or coarse teeth, main spines 1030 mm; middle and upper sessile, not strongly reduced, clasping or short-decurrent, exceedingly spiny
Inflorescence: heads generally few, short-peduncled, ± closely subtended by uppermost leaves; involucres ± 3 cm, 1.52 cm diam when fresh, cylindric or narrowly ovoid, sparsely tomentose or becoming glabrous; phyllary bodies lanceolate to ± ovate, entire, tip spreading to erect, spines 2025 mm, inner with tips straight, flat or short-spiny, often red or purple, puberulent
Flowers exserted; corollas 2830 mm, ± rose-purple, tube 1114 mm, throat 46 mm, lobes 1213 mm
Fruit 56 mm, ± flattened, shiny brown; pappus 1820 mm
Ecology: Uncommon. Pinyon/juniper woodland
Elevation: 15002300 m.
Bioregional distribution: eastern Desert Mountains (Clark, New York mtns)
Flowering time: JulOct
The most spiny thistle in CA. Related to C. arizonicum.