|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Biennial (or short-lived perennial herb) 525 dm
Stem generally 1, generally simple below, openly branched above, ± white-tomentose
Leaves ± densely tomentose, lighter below; lower 1.56 dm, spiny-petioled, elliptic to oblanceolate, toothed to deeply lobed, lobes generally rigidly spreading, simple or with 12 pairs of coarse teeth or 2° lobes, main spines 320 mm; middle and upper smaller, narrower, decurrent as spiny wings, upper much reduced, often long-acuminate, generally very spiny, spines 425 mm
Inflorescence: heads in loose to crowded cyme- or panicle-like clusters (sometimes on short axillary branches); peduncles leafy, 010 cm; involucres 1.52.5 cm, 1.52 cm diam, ± ovoid, ± loosely tomentose, becoming glabrous; phyllaries strongly graduated (outer ovate, inner oblong), entire, tightly appressed, midribs of middle often with glandular area, spines 37 mm, ascending or spreading, inner with erect, ± twisted flat tips
Flowers: corollas 1625 mm, white to lavender or pink, tube 711 mm, throat 47 mm, lobes 48 mm
Fruit 3.56 mm, straw-colored to brown, generally not compressed; pappus ± 15 mm
Ecology: Damp soil around springs, canyons, streams, ditches
Elevation: 4002800 m.
Bioregional distribution: East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: Nevada
Flowering time: JulOct
Related to C. douglasii and C. hydrophilum.