|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Biennial (or short-lived perennial herb) 110+ dmSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem 0 or 1several from base, spreading (plants low, mound-like) or erect, often ± fleshy, ridged, glabrous
Leaves strongly wavy-margined, loosely tomentose, soon becoming glabrous; lower 1030 cm, spiny-petioled, generally deeply lobed, lobes ± ovate, generally with radiating 2° lobes or teeth, main spines 710 mm; middle and upper not much reduced, sessile or petioled, decurrent as short, spiny wings
Inflorescence: heads in tight clusters at stem tips, ± sessile or short-peduncled, often closely subtended by several leaves; involucres 23.5 cm, 24 cm diam, ovoid to bell-shaped, glabrous; phyllaries lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, minutely ciliate or spiny-ciliate, outer tipped by ascending spines 25 mm, inner with tips straight, flat, linear
Flowers: corollas 2530 mm, ± white, purplish, tube 1317 mm, throat 59 mm, lobes 57 mm; anthers purple
Fruit 34 mm, oblong-obovate, ± compressed; pappus 1525 mm
Ecology: Wetlands in dunes
Elevation: < 50 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Central Coast (s San Luis Obispo, n Santa Barbara cos.).Related to C. scariosum.