Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

CIRSIUM

THISTLE

David J. Keil and Charles E. Turner

Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1–many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.

Native

C. fontinale (Greene) Jeps.

Perennial 5–22 dm, thinly to densely tomentose, glandular
Stem 1–several
Leaves generally very strongly wavy; lower 1–7 dm, petioles spiny-lobed or toothed, blades shallowly to deeply 1–2 X lobed and dentate, main spines 1–10 mm, abrupt; cauline gradually reduced, well-distributed, ± lobed, upper clasping (bases expanded, ear-like), sometimes short-decurrent, spines often 10–12 mm
Inflorescence: heads ± grouped in panicle-like cluster, ± nodding, closely subtended by uppermost leaves; peduncles 0–7 cm; involucres hemispheric or bell-shaped, green to purple, 1.5–3 cm, 2–4.5 cm diam; phyllaries lanceolate to ovate, spreading to reflexed, spines 1–5 mm
Flowers: corollas 20–22 mm, white to pink or lavender
Fruit 4–5 mm, ± brown; pappus 12–15 mm
Ecology: Serpentine seeps and streams
Elevation: < 750 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Francisco Bay Area, c Outer South Coast Ranges.

Native

var. fontinale

FOUNTAIN THISTLE


Stem < 1.3 m, reddish
Leaves thinly tomentose, clearly glandular
Inflorescence: heads ± nodding in flower, generally erect in fruit; outer phyllaries 15–20 mm, reddish, moderately recurved, flat to ± channeled, widest above middle, abruptly tipped by 1–2 mm spine
Flowers: corolla tube 10 mm, throat 5–6 mm, lobes 5–6 mm; style branches 3–4 mm
Fruit glabrous
Chromosomes: 2n=34 +1
Ecology: Habitat of sp.
Elevation: ± 120 m.
Bioregional distribution: sw San Francisco Bay Area (San Mateo Co.)
Horticultural information: In cultivation.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for CIRSIUM%20fontinale%20var.%20fontinale being generated
 
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Cirsium fontinale var. fontinale
Retrieve dichotomous key for Cirsium
Retrieve multiple-entry key (MEKA) for Cirsium
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
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