|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Perennial 2.56(>10) dm; rootstock branched
Stem generally simple below, ± cobwebby, soft-hairy (hairs jointed)
Leaves ± cobwebby on both surfaces or becoming glabrous above, soft-hairy (hairs jointed), especially on midrib below; rosettes from rootstock branches; lower 12(5) dm, petioled, generally 12 X lobed, main spines 34 mm, middle and upper clasping or short-decurrent, upper much reduced, generally very spiny
Inflorescence: heads fewmany in ± flat-topped cymes (sometimes raceme- or panicle-like), sessile or peduncles generally 110 cm; involucres 1.53 cm, 1.55 cm diam, ovoid to hemispheric, ± tomentose; phyllaries ± linear, midribs of outer and middle generally with a narrow sticky glandular area, tips ascending to spreading, spines 24 mm, inner with tips flat, straight
Flowers: corollas 2033 mm, dull white, tube 1015 mm, throat 812 mm, lobes 58 mm
Fruit 78 mm, dark brown to black, ± flattened; pappus 1525 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=30, 34
Ecology: Shrubland, woodland, open forest, meadows, sometimes on serpentine
Elevation: 1002100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n&s Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, n Inner South Coast Ranges, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: s Oregon
Horticultural information: STBL.