|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Biennial or short-lived perennial herb 310 dm, from taproot
Stem generally 1, generally simple below, ± cobwebby and soft-hairy (hairs jointed, multicellular)
Leaves ± tomentose (especially lower surface), sometimes becoming ± glabrous; lower ± petioled, 12(3) dm, oblong or narrowly oblanceolate, generally lobed, main spines 510 mm; middle and upper smaller, decurrent as spiny wings, toothed or shallowly lobed
Inflorescence: heads 1many in flat-topped to raceme-like clusters, sessile or peduncles generally 110 cm; involucres 1.52.5 cm, 1.53 cm diam, ovoid to hemispheric, ± loosely tomentose; phyllaries linear-lanceolate to ovate, ascending to spreading, midribs of outer and middle often with narrow glandular area, spines 510 mm, inner with tips flat, straight
Flowers: corollas 2027 mm, dull white to pale purple, tube 710 mm, throat 710 mm, lobes 47 mm
Fruit 46 mm, dark brown, ± compressed; pappus 1525 mm
Ecology: Shrubby areas, open forests, roadsides
Elevation: 16003400 m.
Bioregional distribution: e High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada
Synonyms: C. utahense Petr. misapplied
Needs further study; closely related to C. subniveum Rydb.