|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Perennial, often appearing biennial, (1.5)47(10) dm; caudices erect, taprooted, from rootstock
Stem 1several, simple or branches ascending, ± glabrous to puberulent and or tomentose
Leaves generally green above, ± persistently gray-tomentose below; lower 835 cm, petiole spiny-winged, coarsely dentate or shallowly to deeply 12 X lobed, main spines 15 mm; middle ± clasping; upper generally much reduced, linear-oblong, often spinier than lower
Inflorescence: heads 1few; peduncles < 20 cm (lateral heads sometimes ± sessile); involucre 35 cm, 24 cm diam, widely cylindric to narrowly bell-shaped, closely subtended by 1several bracts, loosely tomentose or glabrous; phyllaries strongly graduated, ascending, ± lanceolate, long-acuminate, middle and outer entire or spiny-ciliate, tip spines 13 mm, inner tips entire, long, flat, purple
Flowers: corollas 3045 mm, red to reddish purple, tube 1020 mm, throat 1016 mm, lobes 911 mm
Fruit 67 mm, compressed, brown; pappus 2540 mm
Ecology: Open places, woodland, forest
Elevation: (760)14003150 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to se Idaho?, Nevada
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|