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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

CHRYSANTHEMUM

Elizabeth McClintock

Annual
Stems erect
Leaves alternate, toothed or pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads radiate, peduncled; phyllaries in 2–3 series, overlapping, scarious-margined; receptacle flat to convex or conic, naked
Ray flowers: ligules generally yellow or white
Disk flowers many; corollas yellow; anther tips ovate, bases rounded or ± cordate; style branches truncate with shrub-like tips
Fruit: ray achenes 3-angled, wings present or 0; disk achenes ± cylindric, pappus 0 or a narrow crown
Species in genus: ± 5 species: Medit
Etymology: (Greek: gold flower)
Reference: [Haw 1986 The Garden 111(11):525–528; Humphries 1976 Bull Brit Mus Bot 5:147–240]
See also Argyranthemum, Leucanthemum, Tanacetum.

Introduced

C. coronarium L.

GARLAND or CROWN DAISY


Stems stiffly branched from base, > 10 dm
Leaves < 6 cm, obovate, sessile, 2-pinnately lobed almost to midrib
Inflorescence: heads solitary, < 4 cm diam; phyllaries generally in 3 series, obovate, not keeled, margins transparent
Ray flowers < 15; ligules yellow
Disk flowers: corollas 14–15 mm, yellow
Fruit: ray achenes < 3 mm, 3-angled, winged; disk achenes ± 2.5 mm, angled and ribbed, pappus 0
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Common escape from cultivated in urban coastal areas, vacant lots, roadsides, waste ground
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Central Coast, South Coast, expected more widely
Distribution outside California: native to s Europe

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