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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

CHAMAEMELUM

Elizabeth McClintock

Annual, perennial herb, glabrous or hairy
Stems generally branched, erect or prostrate, < 60 cm
Leaves alternate, 1–3-pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, solitary; phyllaries in 2 or more series, scarious-margined; receptacle rounded to conic, chaffy
Ray flowers < 25, generally pistillate; ligules generally white
Disk flowers many; corolla yellow, tube swollen at base, enclosing tip of fruit; anther tips ovate, bases rounded or ± cordate; style branches truncate with shrub-like tips
Fruit slightly compressed, faintly striate; pappus 0
Species in genus: 4 species: Eur
Etymology: (Derivation unknown)
Reference: [Ross-Craig 1960–1963 Drawings Brit Plants 16: plate 6]

Introduced

C. fuscatum (Brot.) Carv. Vasc.

Annual, aromatic
Stems < 30 cm, simple or sparingly branched
Leaves ± 1–4 cm, 1–2-pinnately lobed; lobes linear; lower petioled; upper sessile
Inflorescence: heads ± 3 cm diam; phyllaries 3–4 mm, tips and margins dark brown, becoming reflexed; receptacle hemispheric, chaff scales ± 3 mm, transparent
Ray flowers ± 12; ligules 10–15 mm, white
Disk flowers: corollas 7–10 mm
Fruit ± 1 mm, all same size, elliptic
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Uncommon. Escape from cultivated in disturbed areas, especially vineyards
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Outer North Coast Ranges (Sonoma Co.)
Distribution outside California: native to Mediterranean
Synonyms: Anthemis f. Brot

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