Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


Robert L. Carr and Gerald D. Carr

Annual, generally erect, with tack- or saucer-shaped glands (and generally more normal glandular hairs), generally aromatic
Leaves generally alternate, ± sessile, ± linear, entire, generally reduced upward; lower often deciduous by flower
Inflorescence: heads radiate, variously clustered; peduncle bracts generally with 1+ tack-like glands; each phyllary partly enfolding a ray fruit; chaff scales between ray and disk flowers, fused, forming a cup, or ± free
Ray flowers 1–6; ligules 3–13 mm, 3-lobed, white to rose or yellow, sometimes with red spot near base
Disk flowers 1–many; corollas 2–9 mm, colored ± like ligules
Fruit: ray fruit ± 3-angled, inner surface ± flat, outer surface rounded to ± angled, pappus 0; disk fruit angled, base tapered, pappus 0 or generally of ± lanceolate (and sometime wider) scales
Species in genus: ± 9 species: especially CA (OR, NV)
Etymology: (Greek: cup gland)


C. fremontii A. Gray

Stem 1–10 dm, ± finely strigose (some hairs longer); branches generally few, ± rigid
Leaves: lower 3–8 cm
Inflorescence: heads 1–several per node; peduncle bracts 4–10 mm, rigid, tack-like glands generally > 1 (1 in rare n SNF plants); phyllaries and chaff scales 4–7 mm, outer surfaces finely scabrous, generally glandular, sparsely long-hairy, tack-like glands 1–several (except some n SNF plants)
Ray flowers 2–6; ligules white to reddish or yellow, lobes ± equal
Disk flowers 6–20
Fruit: ray fruit smooth, generally ± glabrous; disk pappus scales ± 10, alternately long and short
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Ecology: Common. Open, dry meadows, hillsides, gravelly outwashes
Elevation: 100–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Synonyms: C. ciliosa Greene; C. elegans Greene
Highly variable but not easily divisible. Intergrades with C. pauciflora.

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