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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

CALYCADENIA

Robert L. Carr and Gerald D. Carr

Annual, generally erect, with tack- or saucer-shaped glands (and generally more normal glandular hairs), generally aromatic
Leaves generally alternate, ± sessile, ± linear, entire, generally reduced upward; lower often deciduous by flower
Inflorescence: heads radiate, variously clustered; peduncle bracts generally with 1+ tack-like glands; each phyllary partly enfolding a ray fruit; chaff scales between ray and disk flowers, fused, forming a cup, or ± free
Ray flowers 1–6; ligules 3–13 mm, 3-lobed, white to rose or yellow, sometimes with red spot near base
Disk flowers 1–many; corollas 2–9 mm, colored ± like ligules
Fruit: ray fruit ± 3-angled, inner surface ± flat, outer surface rounded to ± angled, pappus 0; disk fruit angled, base tapered, pappus 0 or generally of ± lanceolate (and sometime wider) scales
Species in genus: ± 9 species: especially CA (OR, NV)
Etymology: (Greek: cup gland)

Native

C. fremontii A. Gray


Stem 1–10 dm, ± finely strigose (some hairs longer); branches generally few, ± rigid
Leaves: lower 3–8 cm
Inflorescence: heads 1–several per node; peduncle bracts 4–10 mm, rigid, tack-like glands generally > 1 (1 in rare n SNF plants); phyllaries and chaff scales 4–7 mm, outer surfaces finely scabrous, generally glandular, sparsely long-hairy, tack-like glands 1–several (except some n SNF plants)
Ray flowers 2–6; ligules white to reddish or yellow, lobes ± equal
Disk flowers 6–20
Fruit: ray fruit smooth, generally ± glabrous; disk pappus scales ± 10, alternately long and short
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Ecology: Common. Open, dry meadows, hillsides, gravelly outwashes
Elevation: 100–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Synonyms: C. ciliosa Greene; C. elegans Greene
Highly variable but not easily divisible. Intergrades with C. pauciflora.

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