Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


Annual, perennial herb
Leaves simple, basal or restricted to lower stem, petioled
Inflorescence: heads radiate, solitary on slender, ± naked peduncles; involucre hemispheric; phyllaries in 2 equal series; receptacle conic, naked
Ray flowers many; ligules white to pink or purple
Disk flowers many; corollas yellow; style tips flat, triangular
Fruit flat; pappus 0
Species in genus: 7 species: Eur, Medit
Etymology: (Latin: pretty)


B. perennis L.


Perennial; roots fibrous
Leaves 2–10 cm; blades oblanceolate or obovate, tapered to winged petiole, tip obtuse, margins entire to crenate or serrate, surfaces loosely soft-hairy
Inflorescence: peduncle 2–25 cm, strigose or hairs soft, spreading; phyllaries 3–6 mm, ovate, obtuse, hairs soft, spreading
Ray flowers: ligule 7–10 mm, narrow, white to purple
Disk flowers: corollas ± 2 mm
Fruit 1–1.5 mm, light brown, glabrous
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Lawns, damp, grassy areas
Elevation: generally < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: native to Europe

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