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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

ARNICA

Theodore M. Barkley

Perennial generally from long, naked rhizome
Leaves: basal 0 or generally withered by flower; cauline opposite
Inflorescence ± flat-topped; heads radiate or discoid, 1–many; involucre hemispheric to obconic; phyllaries generally in 2 ± equal series; receptacle ± flat, naked
Ray flowers (0)6–21; ligules (orange-)yellow
Disk flowers many; corolla generally soft-hairy, colored like ligules; anther bases entire or slightly sagittate, tips triangular; style branches flat, tips truncate, very short, hair-tufted
Fruit ± cylindric, 5–10-veined; pappus of many barbed to subplumose bristles, white to red-brown
Species in genus: ± 27 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Latin or Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Downie & Denford 1988 Rhodora 90:245–275]
Diploid species sexual; polyploid species generally form seeds asexually.

Native

A. nevadensis A. Gray

Plant 1–3 dm, glandular, short- (or long-)hairy; rhizome tip scaly
Stems 1–several, loose, generally unbranched
Leaves: basal sometimes in sterile rosettes; cauline 2–3 pairs, short-petioled, lower largest, blade 3–8 cm, elliptic to widely ovate, (sub)entire, base rounded to subcordate
Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1–3; involucre 10–18 mm, ± obconic; phyllaries acute to acuminate, stalked-glandular, base often ± long-hairy
Ray flowers 6–11(15); ligules generally 1–2 cm
Disk flowers: corolla glandular
Fruit 7–8.5 mm, glandular or short-forked-hairy; pappus short-barbed to subplumose, white to straw-colored
Chromosomes: 2n=38,76
Ecology: Coniferous forest, meadows
Elevation: 2000–3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Nevada
Sexual or not. Alpine forms intergrade with A. cordifolia.

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bioregional map for ARNICA%20nevadensis being generated
 


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