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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

ARNICA

Theodore M. Barkley

Perennial generally from long, naked rhizome
Leaves: basal 0 or generally withered by flower; cauline opposite
Inflorescence ± flat-topped; heads radiate or discoid, 1–many; involucre hemispheric to obconic; phyllaries generally in 2 ± equal series; receptacle ± flat, naked
Ray flowers (0)6–21; ligules (orange-)yellow
Disk flowers many; corolla generally soft-hairy, colored like ligules; anther bases entire or slightly sagittate, tips triangular; style branches flat, tips truncate, very short, hair-tufted
Fruit ± cylindric, 5–10-veined; pappus of many barbed to subplumose bristles, white to red-brown
Species in genus: ± 27 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Latin or Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Downie & Denford 1988 Rhodora 90:245–275]
Diploid species sexual; polyploid species generally form seeds asexually.

Native

A. cordifolia Hook.

Plant 1–5 dm, unevenly glandular and short-hairy; rhizome tip ± scaly
Stems 1–few, loose, generally unbranched
Leaves: basal often persistent on sterile rosettes; cauline 2–4 pairs, petioled, reduced upward, blades 3–11 cm, cordate, generally shallowly toothed
Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1–5; involucre 15–20(30) mm, obconic to bell-shaped; phyllaries acute to acuminate, ± long-white-hairy, glandular or not
Ray flowers (6)10–15; ligules < 3 cm
Disk flowers: corolla soft-hairy, glandular
Fruit 6–10 mm, short-forked-hairy or glandular; pappus short-barbed, whitish
Chromosomes: 2n=38,57,76,95,114,152,±198
Ecology: High meadows, coniferous forest
Elevation: 1200–3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, e San Francisco Bay Area, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Wyoming, north-central N.America, New Mexico
Generally asexual. Stunted alpine plants with ovate leaves, glandular fruit have been called var. pumila (Rydb.) Maguire
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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bioregional map for ARNICA%20cordifolia being generated
 


Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Arnica cordifolia
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