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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

ARCTOTIS

AFRICAN DAISY

Elizabeth McClintock

Perennial
Stems erect or decumbent, branched
Leaves alternate, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads radiate, solitary, long-peduncled; phyllaries overlapping in several series; receptacle flat, pitted, generally bristly
Ray flowers 15–25; ligules yellow
Disk flowers many; corolla purple or brown; stamen tips ovate-triangular, bases minutely sagittate; style slender below, thickened above a minutely hairy node, branches very short
Fruit obovoid, generally hairy; pappus of 2 rows of overlapping scales
Species in genus: ± 100 species: s Africa
Etymology: (Greek: bear's ear, from shape of pappus scales)
Reference: [Norlindh 1964 Svensk Bot Tidskr 58:194–203]

Introduced

A. stoechadifolia P. Bergius

BLUE-EYED AFRICAN DAISY


Stems stout, 7.5–10 dm, densely white-woolly
Leaves: blade 1–4 cm, obovate to oblong, generally fiddle-shaped, pinnately lobed, lobes entire or irregularly toothed, white-woolly when young, less so later
Inflorescence: heads < 8 cm diam; peduncles generally > leaves
Ray flowers ± 20; ligules < 3 cm, white above, violet below
Disk flowers: corollas violet
Fruit 2–3 mm, obovoid, 3–5-ridged, with 2–3 cavities on one side; base with many straight hairs > achene; inner row of pappus scales > achene and its hairs, outer scales < achene
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Uncommon. Escape from cultivated in urban coastal areas, waste ground, roadsides
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: South Coast
Distribution outside California: native to s Africa
Synonyms: var. grandis (Thunb.) Less

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