Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


Elizabeth McClintock

Annual, perennial herb
Stems creeping or decumbent, spreading by stolons or rhizomes
Leaves generally pinnately lobed; basal in loose rosettes; cauline alternate
Inflorescence: heads radiate, solitary, long-peduncled; phyllaries overlapping in 3–6 series; receptacle flat, naked
Ray flowers generally sterile; ligules yellow
Disk flowers many; corolla funnel-shaped; stamen tips ovate-triangular, bases minutely sagittate; style slender below, thickened above a minutely hairy node, branches very short
Fruit 3–5-ribbed, glabrous or woolly; pappus of scales or 0
Species in genus: ± 6 species: s Africa, Australia
Etymology: (Greek: bear container)


A. calendula (L.) Levyns


Stems creeping to decumbent, ribbed, soft, ± juicy, tomentose
Leaves 5–25 cm, pinnately lobed, or upper nearly entire; upper surface finely cobwebby; lower surface densely white-woolly
Inflorescence: heads ± 5 cm diam; peduncles scapose, 15–20 cm; outer phyllaries green, woolly, tips reflexed
Ray flowers < 20; ligules yellow above, greenish or purplish below
Disk flowers many, purplish or yellow
Fruit ± 3 mm, covered with woolly hairs; pappus scales ± obscured by woolly hairs
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Disturbed, urban, coastal habitats
Elevation: < 250 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: native to s Africa
A vegetatively reproducing race is cultivated, sometimes escapes; Weedy.

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