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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

ANTHEMIS

DOG-FENNEL, CHAMOMILE

Elizabeth McClintock

Annual, perennial herb, generally aromatic
Stems erect, generally branched
Leaves alternate, 1–3-pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, solitary; phyllaries overlapping in several series, margins scarious; receptacle conic, chaffy; chaff scales narrowly linear
Ray flowers < 25, fertile or sterile; ligules white or yellow
Disk flowers many; corollas yellow; anther tips ovate, bases rounded or ± cordate; style branches truncate with shrub-like tips
Fruit cylindric, ribbed or angled; pappus 0 or a short crown
Species in genus: ± 200 species: Eur, w Asia, n Africa
Etymology: (Greek for chamomile, Anthemis nobilis , see Chamaemelum n.)
Reference: [Ross-Craig 1960–1963 Drawings Brit Plants 16: plates 4,5]

Introduced

A. cotula L.

MAYWEED, STINKWEED, DOG-FENNEL

Annual; herbage ill-scented
Stems < 24 cm, erect, generally lightly hairy
Leaves < 6 cm, 2–3-pinnately divided; segments linear
Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1–2.5 cm diam; phyllaries ± 2.5 mm, green, margins scarious, pale brown; receptacle conic, chaffy in upper half, chaff persistent, 2–3 mm
Ray flowers sterile, 10–15; ligules 6–9 mm, white, reflexed in age
Fruit 1–2 mm; 10-ribbed; ribs with tubercles; pappus a short crown
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Abundant. Weed in disturbed areas, fields, roadsides, coastal dune areas, chaparral, oak woodland
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, c Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: native to Europe

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