|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual or perennial herb, generally scapose; sap milky
Leaves ± basal, narrow, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: head 1, ligulate, erect, 860 mm; phyllaries subequal or overlapping in 24 series, inner often elongated in fruit; receptacle flat, naked
Flowers generally many; ligules = to >> involucre, yellow or red-orange, readily withering, outer ± reddish below
Fruit linear to fusiform, ± 10-ribbed; beak often = or >> body; pappus of many fine, simple, white bristles
Species in genus: ± 10 species: Am
Etymology: (Greek: goat chicory)
Reference: [Q. Jones 1954 PhD Harvard U.]
Like Taraxacum but closely related to Nothocalais.
Hybrids and polyploidy complicate variation in some species
Annual 540 cm, ± white-hairy (except densely yellow- to reddish hairy and glandular at base of head)
Leaves generally oblanceolate, acute, entire to few-toothed, less often narrower and lobed, generally softly or roughly white-hairy
Inflorescence: involucre 825 mm; outer phyllaries oblong-lanceolate, generally ciliate and glandular-hairy on back, often reddish tinged or striped, tip tapered, green; inner phyllaries much elongated in fruit
Flowers 5many, = to >> involucre; ligules yellow
Fruit: body 25 mm, variable, often wavy-ribbed, sometimes inflated; beak >> body
Ecology: Many open habitats
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except East of Sierra Nevada, Desert)
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Idaho, New Mexico, Mexico
Variable; small-flowered races self-fertilizing.