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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.



Annual, perennial herb, shrubs
Leaves simple, opposite or alternate
Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid, solitary or in few–many-headed cymes; phyllaries in 2–6 equal to very unequal series, free; receptacle flat to conic, chaffy; chaff scales entire, folded around ovaries
Ray flowers fertile or sterile; corollas yellow to white
Disk flowers many; corollas yellow to orange; style branches acute to acuminate
Fruit: ray achenes triangular or 0; disk achenes flattened, wing-margined, obovate; pappus 0 or of 2 awns
Etymology: (Derived from Verbena)
Reference: [Coleman 1966 Madroño 18:129–137; Coleman 1966 Amer Midl Naturalist 76:475–481]


V. encelioides (Cav.) A. Gray subsp. exauriculata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) J.R. Coleman


Annual 15–130 cm; odor unpleasant
Stems densely short-hairy
Leaves petioled; blade lanceolate to triangular-ovate, 3-veined from base, coarsely dentate, dull green, ± strigose-canescent
Inflorescence: heads 1–many; peduncles subtended by leaf-like bracts; phyllaries in 2 or 3 ± equal series, 8–10 mm, linear-lanceolate, acute, ± strigose; chaff scales 6–8 mm, abruptly acuminate
Ray flowers fertile; ligule orange-yellow, ± 3-lobed; style present
Disk flowers: corolla 5–6 mm; anthers yellow to light brown
Fruit: ray achenes 3–4 mm, obovoid, triangular, wing 0, pappus 0; disk achene 4–6.5 mm, obovate, flattened, brown or black, soft-hairy, wing wide, ± white, corky, pappus awns 2, 1–2.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=34
Ecology: Disturbed areas, roadsides, fields
Elevation: generally < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Joaquin Valley, South Coast Ranges (Salinas Valley), South Coast, Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: w N.America; native Arizona to Great Plains, Mexico
Flowering time: May–Dec
Synonyms: V. en. var. ex. B.L. Rob. & Greenm
TOXIC to livestock but unpalatable.

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bioregional map for VERBESINA%20encelioides%20subsp.%20exauriculata being generated

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