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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

MADIA

TARWEED

Annual or perennial herb, generally densely glandular, aromatic
Stems 1–several, generally simple below, ± branched above
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, generally linear to lanceolate, entire to slightly toothed
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, generally peduncled, few–many; phyllaries generally 1–20, free, enclosing (and falling with) ray achenes; receptacle ± flat, generally glabrous; chaff scales generally ± fused, in ring between ray and disk flowers
Ray flowers generally 1–20, sometimes minute; ligules 2–3-lobed, generally yellow
Disk flowers 1–many, sometimes staminate; corollas yellow or maroon; anther tips triangular-ovate; style tips linear to oblong, acute, bristly
Fruit club-shaped or obovoid; ray achenes compressed, thickened, or 3-angled (1 angle toward center of head), ridged, sometimes beaked; pappus 0 or of short scales; disk achenes ± symmetric; pappus 0 or of 4–10 scales or bristles
Species in genus: 21 species: w North America, sw South America
Recent taxonomic note: *See revised taxonomy of Baldwin 1999 Novon 9:462–471.
Etymology: (Chilean name)
Reference: [Nelson & Nelson 1980 Brittonia 32:323–325]

Native

M. madioides (Nutt.) Greene

Perennial 1.5–7.5 dm
Stems ± bristly below, densely stalked-glandular above; glands golden to dark brown
Leaves 6–12 cm, opposite well up stem, fused at base, linear to oblanceolate, entire or ± serrate, bristly-strigose or soft-hairy; upper alternate, uppermost often much reduced
Inflorescence: heads few, long-peduncled, in open raceme-like or flat-topped cymes; involucre 4–6 mm, spheric to urn-shaped; phyllaries densely stalked-glandular, tip short, not flat; chaff scales sometimes fused only near base
Ray flowers 8–15; corolla tubes 1–1.5 mm, ligules 4–10 mm
Disk flowers 10–30, staminate; corollas 4–5 mm; anthers yellow to brown
Fruit: ray achenes 3–5 mm, oblanceolate to obovate, moderately bowed, strongly compressed side-to-side, obscurely 5-veined, beaked or not, pappus 0 or a minute crown; disk ovaries 3–4 mm, hairy, pappus scales 5–8, 0.2–1 mm, fringed
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Forests
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, n High Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Peninsular Ranges (Agua Tibia Mtn)
Distribution outside California: to s British Columbia
Recent taxonomic note: *Anisocarpus madioides Nutt.
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR: 4 &SHD: 1, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17.

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bioregional map for MADIA%20madioides being generated
 


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