|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual or perennial herb, generally densely glandular, aromatic
Stems 1several, generally simple below, ± branched above
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, generally linear to lanceolate, entire to slightly toothed
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, generally peduncled, fewmany; phyllaries generally 120, free, enclosing (and falling with) ray achenes; receptacle ± flat, generally glabrous; chaff scales generally ± fused, in ring between ray and disk flowers
Ray flowers generally 120, sometimes minute; ligules 23-lobed, generally yellow
Disk flowers 1many, sometimes staminate; corollas yellow or maroon; anther tips triangular-ovate; style tips linear to oblong, acute, bristly
Fruit club-shaped or obovoid; ray achenes compressed, thickened, or 3-angled (1 angle toward center of head), ridged, sometimes beaked; pappus 0 or of short scales; disk achenes ± symmetric; pappus 0 or of 410 scales or bristles
Species in genus: 21 species: w North America, sw South America
Recent taxonomic note: *See revised taxonomy of Baldwin 1999 Novon 9:462471.
Etymology: (Chilean name)
Reference: [Nelson & Nelson 1980 Brittonia 32:323325]
Annual 125 dm, strongly scented
Stems simple to branched throughout, often very leafy below, soft-hairy below, sparsely to densely stalked-glandular especially above; glands yellow to black
Leaves 220 cm, linear to widely lanceolate, entire or ± serrate, soft-hairy to bristly, ± glandular
Inflorescence: heads in open, rounded to ± flat-topped cymes (sometimes panicle-like); involucre 4.512 mm, bell-shaped to hemispheric; phyllaries ± bristly, glandular or not, tips flat; receptacle hairy; chaff scales strongly fused
Ray flowers 521; corolla tubes 0.51 mm, ligules (2.5)420 mm, fan-shaped, deeply lobed, yellow, base generally maroon-spotted
Disk flowers 2550+, staminate; corollas 2.55 mm, yellow or maroon; anthers yellow or black
Fruit: ray achenes 2.55 mm, compressed side-to-side or ± 3-angled, glabrous, black or dark brown, sometimes mottled, beak 0, pappus 0; disk ovaries slender, much reduced, pappus 0
Ecology: Grassland, open forest
Elevation: < 3350 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except Channel Islands), Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to n Oregon, Baja California
Highly variable; intermediates blur distinctions among extremes.
Plant 29 dm
Leaves: basal few, rosette small; lower cauline ± crowded, soft-hairy, upper ± strongly glandular
Inflorescence: involucre 410 mm; phyllary tips < or = body
Ray flowers 816; ligules 615 mm
Disk flowers fewmany; corollas yellow or maroon; anthers purple-black
Fruit: ray achenes compressed
Ecology: Meadows, dry slopes, open forests
Elevation: 9002500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, Channel Islands), East of Sierra Nevada (uncommon)
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Flowering time: JunAug
Horticultural information: TRY.