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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

MADIA

TARWEED

Annual or perennial herb, generally densely glandular, aromatic
Stems 1–several, generally simple below, ± branched above
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, generally linear to lanceolate, entire to slightly toothed
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, generally peduncled, few–many; phyllaries generally 1–20, free, enclosing (and falling with) ray achenes; receptacle ± flat, generally glabrous; chaff scales generally ± fused, in ring between ray and disk flowers
Ray flowers generally 1–20, sometimes minute; ligules 2–3-lobed, generally yellow
Disk flowers 1–many, sometimes staminate; corollas yellow or maroon; anther tips triangular-ovate; style tips linear to oblong, acute, bristly
Fruit club-shaped or obovoid; ray achenes compressed, thickened, or 3-angled (1 angle toward center of head), ridged, sometimes beaked; pappus 0 or of short scales; disk achenes ± symmetric; pappus 0 or of 4–10 scales or bristles
Species in genus: 21 species: w North America, sw South America
Recent taxonomic note: *See revised taxonomy of Baldwin 1999 Novon 9:462–471.
Etymology: (Chilean name)
Reference: [Nelson & Nelson 1980 Brittonia 32:323–325]

Native

M. bolanderi (A. Gray) A. Gray

Perennial 5–12 dm, strongly scented
Stems ± bristly below; upper branches densely stalked-glandular; glands dark brown to black
Leaves 10–30 cm, opposite well up stem, fused at base, bristly; upper alternate, often much reduced
Inflorescence: heads few, long-peduncled, in rounded or flat-topped clusters; involucre 9–13 mm, bell-shaped or hemispheric; phyllaries densely glandular, ± bristly, tips acuminate; chaff scales free or fused only near base
Ray flowers 8–12, showy; corolla tubes ± 3 mm, ligules 7–13 mm
Disk flowers 30–65, fertile; corollas 5–7 mm; anthers black
Fruit: ray achenes 5–7 mm, club-shaped, moderately curved, ± compressed side-to-side, obscurely 5-veined, dark brown or black, ± glabrous, beak ± 0, pappus 0 or minute crown; disk achenes 5–8 mm, narrowly club-shaped, short-hairy, brown; pappus scales 5–10, 1–5 mm, linear-lanceolate, ciliate
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Ecology: Meadows, streambanks
Elevation: 1000–2600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: s Oregon
Recent taxonomic note: *Kyhosia bolanderi (A. Gray) B.G. Baldwin

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bioregional map for MADIA%20bolanderi being generated
 
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