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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

HOLOCARPHA

Annual, densely glandular, strongly scented
Leaves alternate or lower opposite, linear to oblanceolate, entire to lobed; upper reduced, often with axillary leaf clusters, tipped by open-pit glands
Inflorescence: heads radiate, in flat-topped to panicle-like clusters; phyllaries half-enclosing ray ovaries, falling with fruits, back with stalked, open-pit glands, tip cylindric, gland-tipped; receptacle chaffy
Ray flowers 3–16; ligules 3-lobed (middle narrowest), yellow
Disk flowers few–many, most sterile; corolla yellow; anther tips widely triangular; style branches tapered
Fruit: pappus 0; ray achenes ± 3-angled, short-beaked, dark; disk achenes ± club-shaped
Species in genus: 4 species: CA
Etymology: (Greek: wholly chaffy, from receptacle)
Reference: [Palmer 1982 PhD Univ CA Davis]
± identical forms often intersterile.

Native

H. virgata (A. Gray) D.D. Keck


Stems 2–12 dm; branches generally not overtopping main stem, soft-hairy and glandular below, canescent or short-bristly above, resinous
Leaves: lower 6–15 cm, linear, bristly, resinous; upper crowded
Inflorescence spike- or raceme-like; heads sessile or short-peduncled; peduncle bracts 2–5 mm, overlapping, appressed to involucre base, spreading to ± recurved, ± cylindric, generally gland-tipped; involucres 5–6 mm, ± obconic; phyllaries with 5–20 stout, gland-tipped projections, otherwise glabrous; receptacle 1–2 mm diam, nearly flat
Ray flowers 3–7; ligules 4–6 mm
Disk flowers 9–25; corollas 3.5–4.5 mm; anthers black
Fruit: ray achenes 2.4–3.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=8
Ecology: Grassland
Elevation: < 800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, e Central Western California, c&s South Coast.

Native

subsp. elongata D.D. Keck

GRACEFUL TARPLANT


Stems slender; branches many, gracefully curved
Inflorescence: peduncles < 15 cm, openly bracted
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Grassland
Elevation: < 600 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s South Coast.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for HOLOCARPHA%20virgata%20subsp.%20elongata being generated
 


Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Holocarpha virgata subsp. elongata
Retrieve dichotomous key for Holocarpha
Retrieve multiple-entry key (MEKA) for Holocarpha
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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