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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.



G. Ledyard Stebbins

Perennial; sap milky; herbage generally long-hairy
Stems erect, 1–10 dm
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate
Inflorescence: heads ligulate, few–many in cymes or panicles; involucre cylindric; phyllaries in 2–4 series of different lengths; receptacle naked
Flowers few–many; ligules yellow, white, or orange, readily withering
Fruit cylindric, slender; pappus of many slender bristles, brittle, dull white, tawny, or brownish
Species in genus: ± 250 species: ± worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: hawk)
Many reproduce only by asexual seeds.


H. horridum Fr.

Stolons 0; herbage densely long-hairy; hairs whitish or brownish
Stems 1–several from taproot, 1–3.5 dm, much-branched
Leaves mostly cauline, 3–10 cm, oblong, entire
Inflorescence: heads many, in open cymes or panicles; involucre 6–9 mm, narrow; phyllaries glandular and long-hairy
Flowers 6–15; ligules yellow
Fruit 3 mm; pappus brownish
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Rocky places, crevices
Elevation: 1350–3300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Jacinto Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Flowering time: Jul–Aug
Horticultural information: TRY.

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