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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.



G. Ledyard Stebbins

Perennial; sap milky; herbage generally long-hairy
Stems erect, 1–10 dm
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate
Inflorescence: heads ligulate, few–many in cymes or panicles; involucre cylindric; phyllaries in 2–4 series of different lengths; receptacle naked
Flowers few–many; ligules yellow, white, or orange, readily withering
Fruit cylindric, slender; pappus of many slender bristles, brittle, dull white, tawny, or brownish
Species in genus: ± 250 species: ± worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: hawk)
Many reproduce only by asexual seeds.


H. aurantiacum L.

Stolons and leaf rosettes many
Stems 2–7 dm, densely hairy
Leaves all or mostly basal, 0.5–2 dm, oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, entire or obscurely toothed, densely soft-hairy
Inflorescence scapose; heads in dense to loose cymes; involucres 5–9 mm; phyllaries glandular and black-hairy
Flowers 32–45; ligules orange-red, often drying ± purple
Fruit 1.5–2 mm; pappus white
Chromosomes: 2n=30,36,45,54
Ecology: Invasive weed of lawns, disturbed places
Elevation: ± 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: n Sierra Nevada Foothills (Grass Valley, Nevada Co.), expected more widely
Distribution outside California: native to Europe; noxious weed in ne US

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