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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

HELIANTHUS

SUNFLOWER

Annual or perennial herb
Stems generally erect
Leaves opposite or alternate, generally reduced upward, often 3-veined from near base, generally rough-hairy
Inflorescence: heads radiate, solitary or in cymes; involucre bell-shaped to hemispheric; phyllaries in 1–3 generally ± equal series, free; receptacle flat to rounded; chaff scales 0–3-lobed
Ray flowers 10–many, sterile; ligules yellow
Disk flowers many; corollas yellow to red or purple, tube short, throat base often swollen, lobes triangular; style appendages triangular
Fruit oblanceolate to obovate, ± compressed; sides rounded; pappus generally of 2 deciduous, lanceolate to ovate scales (sometimes also 1–several shorter scales)
Species in genus: 67 species: Am
Etymology: (Greek: sun flower)
Reference: [Heiser 1969 Mem Torrey Bot Club 22(3):1–218]

Native

H. bolanderi A. Gray

Annual < 1.5 m
Stems rough-hairy
Leaves petioled; blades 3–15 cm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate, base truncate to wedge-shaped, tip generally acute, margin entire to serrate
Inflorescence: heads 1–several; peduncles 3–13 cm; involucre 1.5–2.5 cm diam; phyllaries 8–25 mm, oblong to lanceolate, long-acuminate, generally >> disk, hairs long, soft to stiff; chaff scales 3-toothed, awn-tipped, >> disk flowers, tip glabrous
Ray flowers 10–17; ligules 1–2 cm
Disk flowers: corollas 4–6 mm, lobes yellow or red-purple
Fruit 3–4.5 mm; pappus scales 2–3 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=34
Ecology: Grassy, often disturbed places
Elevation: generally < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: s Oregon
Slender plants on serpentine have been called H. exilis A. Gray, serpentine sunflower
Horticultural information: SUN, DRN: 4, 5, 6, 17 &IRR: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

Information on Distribution was contributed by Tom Cochrane (13 May 2004):
Helianthus bolanderi... is known at Santa Teresa co. park in S. San Jose

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bioregional map for HELIANTHUS%20bolanderi being generated
 
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Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Helianthus bolanderi
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