Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


G. Ledyard Stebbins

Annual; sap milky
Stems branched, spreading
Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, entire to dentate or pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads ligulate, small; phyllaries in 2 series, outer small, inner equal, hardened, enveloping outer fruits; receptacle naked
Flowers many; ligules yellow, readily withering
Fruit cylindric, not beaked, often strongly incurved; pappus of long or short scales, sometimes mixed with bristles
Species in genus: 3 species: Atlantic islands, Medit
Etymology: (Greek: name of Pliny for a kind of wild endive)


H. cretica (L.) Dum.Cours.


Herbage finely bristly; hairs minutely forked or barbed at tip
Stems 0.5–4 dm
Leaves 5–18 cm, generally oblong to oblanceolate; lower tapered to base
Inflorescence: heads solitary or 1–several in open cymose clusters; peduncles generally thickened; involucre 8–10 mm; phyllaries linear, strongly incurved, glabrous to densely bristly
Fruit 5–7 mm, minutely scabrous; pappus of outer achenes a low crown of fused scales; pappus of inner achenes short scales + elongated, bristle-tipped scales
Chromosomes: 2n=8,11,12,13,14,15,16, 18
Ecology: Locally naturalized weed of gardens, pastures, roadsides, etc.
Elevation: 0–750 m.
Bioregional distribution: Outer North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast
Distribution outside California: native to Mediterranean

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