|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Biennial to subshrub from taproot or woody caudex, glabrous to tomentose or glandular-sticky
Leaves entire to pinnately lobed, generally clasping, gland-dotted
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, 1many; involucres obconic to hemispheric, generally gummy; phyllaries in 410 series, bases generally tough, tips green; receptacle flat to convex, naked, ± pitted
Ray flowers 0many; ligules yellow
Disk flowers: corollas yellow; style appendages linear to lanceolate, generally = or > stigmatic portion
Fruit cylindric or swollen-obconic, shiny white to ± brown, glabrous, smooth to ridged; pappus of 16 awns ± < disk corollas, generally < 0.2 mm wide, generally U-shaped in X -section, generally entire, deciduous
Species in genus: ± 80 species: c&w North America, South America
Etymology: (D.H. Grindel, 17761836, Latvian botanist)
Perennial 215 dm, erect, few-branched above, green to red-purple or -brown, glabrous to tomentose
Leaf 110 cm, oblong to lanceolate, entire to lobed (less so upward) yellow-, red-, or gray-green
Inflorescence: heads often subtended by phyllary-like bracts; involucres 732 mm diam, hemispheric to bell-shaped; phyllaries 45 series, generally lanceolate-acute, outer erect to reflexed
Ray flowers 1060+; ligules 820 mm
Disk flowers many; throat narrow
Fruit 2.55.5 mm, golden- to red-brown, smooth to ridged; pappus awns flat
Ecology: Sandy, clay, or serpentine slopes or roadsides
Elevation: < 1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia?
Varieties (except hallii ) intergrade.