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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

GRINDELIA

GUMPLANT

Meredith A. Lane

Biennial to subshrub from taproot or woody caudex, glabrous to tomentose or glandular-sticky
Leaves entire to pinnately lobed, generally clasping, gland-dotted
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, 1–many; involucres obconic to hemispheric, generally gummy; phyllaries in 4–10 series, bases generally tough, tips green; receptacle flat to convex, naked, ± pitted
Ray flowers 0–many; ligules yellow
Disk flowers: corollas yellow; style appendages linear to lanceolate, generally = or > stigmatic portion
Fruit cylindric or swollen-obconic, shiny white to ± brown, glabrous, smooth to ridged; pappus of 1–6 awns ± < disk corollas, generally < 0.2 mm wide, generally U-shaped in X -section, generally entire, deciduous
Species in genus: ± 80 species: c&w North America, South America
Etymology: (D.H. Grindel, 1776–1836, Latvian botanist)
Hybrids common.

Native

G. camporum Greene

Perennial 6–25 dm, ± erect, ± glabrous
Stems appearing white-varnished
Leaves: cauline 2–3 cm, lanceolate to ovate, entire to serrate, stiff, light yellow- to gray-green
Inflorescence: head 1; involucre 17–25 mm diam, hemispheric; phyllaries 6–7 series, acuminate, strongly reflexed to coiled 360°, glabrous
Ray flowers (0)25–39; ligules 8–11 mm
Disk flowers many; corolla throat ± narrow
Fruit 2–5 mm, generally 2–3-angled, white to golden-brown; tops generally flanged; pappus awns 2–6
Chromosomes: 2n=24
Ecology: Sandy or saline bottomlands, fields, roadsides
Elevation: < 1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: Baja California

Native

var. camporum

Plant < 25 dm, much-branched from base
Inflorescence: head generally not subtended by bracts
Ray flowers generally 32–39
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California
Synonyms: var. parviflora Steyerm., Great Valley gumplant; G. procera Greene; G. robusta Nutt. var. r. in part
Hybrids: G. X paludosa Greene (X G. stricta var. angustifolia ); G. X latifolia Kellogg in part & G. X robusta in part (X G. stricta var. platyphylla ).
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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