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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


Stems generally erect
Leaves simple, opposite, petioled; blade 3-veined
Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid, generally small, in leafy-bracted cymes; peduncles slender; involucre bell-shaped; phyllaries in 2 series, free; receptacle conic, chaffy, scales of 2 kinds, outer fused in groups of 2–3 together with a phyllary around a ray flower, inner narrower, subtending disk flowers
Ray flowers (0)5–8, ligule short, white
Disk flowers 8–50; corolla yellow; style tips acute
Fruit obconic, round to ± angled; pappus of fringed scales or 0
Species in genus: ± 15 species: Am tropical; some widespread weeds
Etymology: (D. Mariano Martinez de Galinsoga, Spanish physician, 18th century)
Reference: [Canne 1977 Rhodora 79:319–389]


G. quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Annual, ± soft-hairy, sometimes also glandular
Stem 10–60 cm, simple or much-branched
Leaf: petiole 2–6 cm; blade 1.5–9.5 cm, ± ovate, acute or obtuse, finely to coarsely serrate
Inflorescence: heads 2–10 mm diam; cymes round- to ± flat-topped; peduncles 0–5 mm; phyllaries and chaff deciduous; outer phyllaries generally 1–2, 1–3 mm, 0.5–2 mm wide, margins herbaceous; inner phyllaries generally 5, 2.5–4 mm, 1.5–2.7 mm wide; inner chaff scales entire or shallowly 2–3-lobed
Ray flowers generally 5; ligule 1–2.8 mm
Disk flowers 15–65; corolla 1–2 mm
Fruit 1–1.8 mm, glabrous or strigose; pappus of ray achenes 0 or of 8–20 scales 0.2–1.4 mm; pappus of disk achenes 0 or of (few)15–20 bristle-tipped scales < or = 1.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=32,48,64
Ecology: Gardens, fields
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: ± worldwide; native to Mexico

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