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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.



Annual or perennial herb, generally rough-hairy
Leaves alternate, reduced upward; blades oblong to ± ovate in CA, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, 1 or in leafy cyme; peduncles slender, bracts 0–few; involucre hemispheric; phyllaries in 2–3 series, generally reflexed in fruit; receptacle rounded to spheric, chaffy or bristly
Ray flowers 0–many, sometimes sterile; ligules showy, yellow to red, purple or multicolored, generally deeply 3-lobed
Disk flowers many; corollas yellow to red or purple, generally long-hairy; style tips long, tapered
Fruit obpyramidal, generally hairy; pappus of 5–10 scales, often awn-tipped
Species in genus: ± 28 species: Am
Etymology: (Gaillard de Merentonneau, French botanist, 1700's)


G. aristata Pursh

Perennial 2–7 dm, generally erect
Leaves: lower 5–15 cm
Inflorescence: heads generally 1–2; peduncles 8–20 cm; phyllaries 9–11 mm, acuminate; receptacle bristles clearly > fruits
Ray flowers generally (6–) 13(–16); ligules 10–35 mm, yellow or base purple
Disk flowers: corollas 7–9 mm, purple or brown, densely purplish woolly
Fruit 3–4 mm, densely hairy; pappus 7–10 mm, awn ± 2 X body
Chromosomes: 2n=34,36, 68,72
Ecology: Uncommon. Open sites, grassland
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: e Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, ND, Colorado; native to Oregon, British Columbia
Sometimes cultivated.

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