Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


Annual, perennial herb, shrubs
Stems prostrate to erect
Leaves simple, opposite, sessile or petioled
Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid, borne in stalked or sessile, open to very condensed, sometimes head-like cymes; peduncles 0 or slender; involucre ± cylindric; phyllaries 2–5
Ray flowers 0 or 1; corollas yellow or cream; ligules very small
Disk flowers 1–15; corollas yellow; style tips flattened, obtuse
Fruit 10-ribbed, ± flattened, glabrous, shining; pappus 0 (rarely of 2–4 scales)
Species in genus: 21 species: North America, South America, Australia
Etymology: (Latin: yellow)


F. trinervia (Spreng.) C. Mohr

Annual, often rounded
Stems 15–80 cm
Leaves 3–15 cm, lanceolate, oblanceolate, elliptic or ovate, petioled or upper sessile; bases often fused around stem; tip acute to obtuse; margin dentate or serrate; surfaces glabrous
Inflorescence: heads in dense sessile, head-like clusters at forks of stem; involucres < 1 mm diam; phyllaries generally 2, 4–4.5 mm, oblong, obtuse
Ray flowers generally 1; ligule 0.5–1 mm, creamy yellow
Disk flowers: corollas 2–2.5 mm
Fruit 2–2.6 mm, black
Chromosomes: 2n=36
Ecology: Moist soil in waste places, cultivated areas
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: e South Coast
Distribution outside California: native to Arizona to se US, S.America

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