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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

FILAGO

COTTONROSE, FILZKRAUT

James D. Morefield

Annual, grayish, cobwebby to tomentose
Stems generally ± evenly leafy below, ± leafless between upper forks
Leaves simple, alternate or seeming whorled, ± sessile, entire
Inflorescence: heads disciform, ± sessile, generally in groups of 2–10(20), ± ovoid to conic until mature; bracts leaf-like; phyllaries ± 0; receptacle generally < 2 X longer than wide, generally expanded at tip, chaffy; chaff scales generally 10–20, ± phyllary-like, each subtending a pistillate flower, generally evenly curved inward; outer scales each ± folded around a flower, generally falling with a fruit, ± woolly, back generally rounded, tip generally narrowly obtuse to acute, ± scarious-winged; innermost chaff scales generally > outer, open, boat-shaped, persistent, ± glabrous, ± rigid throughout, generally spreading at maturity
Pistillate flowers in (3)4–8 series, all or outer subtended by chaff scales; corollas tubular
Disk flowers bisexual, not subtended by chaff scales; corolla lobes 4–5
Fruit ± obovoid, generally ± compressed side-to-side; outer fruit enfolded by chaff scale, generally erect, straight, smooth, shiny, pappus 0; inner fruit not enfolded by chaff scale, slightly < outer, rougher or papillate, dull, pappus generally of 16–30 bristles, ± deciduous, generally cohering in a ring
Species in genus: 24 species: Eur, n Africa, sw Asia, sw North America
Etymology: (Latin: with threads, from woolly hairs)
Reference: [Wagenitz 1976 Sida 6:221–223]
Characters may be unreliable in dwarf plants. Subg. Oglifa sometimes treated as genus Logfia in Eur. 3 Eur. aliens occur near CA: F. arvensis, minima, vulgaris.

Introduced

F. gallica L.


Stems 1–few from base, erect, forked, < 50 cm, grayish to green, cobwebby; central axis generally not dominant
Leaves < 30(–40) mm, generally awl-like, acute, ± stiff, grayish to green, cobwebby; uppermost generally 2 X heads or longer
Inflorescence: heads in loose, ± hemispheric groups of 3–10, restricted to forks and tips of branches; longest 3.5–4.5 mm, 2–3 mm wide, grayish, largest groups 8–10 mm diam; chaff scales in 5 ± vertical ranks, longest 3.3–4.1 mm; outer chaff scales bent abruptly inward above fruit, tightly closed, body very hard
Pistillate flowers in 4–8 series; inner 9–30 flowers not subtended by chaff scales
Disk flowers 3–5; corollas 2.2–3 mm, lobes 4, generally brownish to yellowish
Fruit: outer fruit ascending, 0.9–1 mm, ± bent, compressed side-to-side; inner fruit sparsely papillate; pappus bristles 19–30, 2.2–3 mm, falling in a ring
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Common, weedy. Bare or grassy places
Elevation: < 1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: also in nw Baja California, Hawaii, Chile; native to Mediterranean

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