This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual, grayish, cobwebby to tomentose
Stems generally ± evenly leafy below, ± leafless between upper forks
Leaves simple, alternate or seeming whorled, ± sessile, entire
Inflorescence: heads disciform, ± sessile, generally in groups of 210(20), ± ovoid to conic until mature; bracts leaf-like; phyllaries ± 0; receptacle generally < 2 X longer than wide, generally expanded at tip, chaffy; chaff scales generally 1020, ± phyllary-like, each subtending a pistillate flower, generally evenly curved inward; outer scales each ± folded around a flower, generally falling with a fruit, ± woolly, back generally rounded, tip generally narrowly obtuse to acute, ± scarious-winged; innermost chaff scales generally > outer, open, boat-shaped, persistent, ± glabrous, ± rigid throughout, generally spreading at maturity
Pistillate flowers in (3)48 series, all or outer subtended by chaff scales; corollas tubular
Disk flowers bisexual, not subtended by chaff scales; corolla lobes 45
Fruit ± obovoid, generally ± compressed side-to-side; outer fruit enfolded by chaff scale, generally erect, straight, smooth, shiny, pappus 0; inner fruit not enfolded by chaff scale, slightly < outer, rougher or papillate, dull, pappus generally of 1630 bristles, ± deciduous, generally cohering in a ring
Species in genus: 24 species: Eur, n Africa, sw Asia, sw North America
Etymology: (Latin: with threads, from woolly hairs)
Reference: [Wagenitz 1976 Sida 6:221223]
Characters may be unreliable in dwarf plants. Subg. Oglifa sometimes treated as genus Logfia in Eur. 3 Eur. aliens occur near CA: F. arvensis, minima, vulgaris.
Stems 1few from base, erect, forked, < 50 cm, grayish to green, cobwebby; central axis generally not dominant
Leaves < 30(40) mm, generally awl-like, acute, ± stiff, grayish to green, cobwebby; uppermost generally 2 X heads or longer
Inflorescence: heads in loose, ± hemispheric groups of 310, restricted to forks and tips of branches; longest 3.54.5 mm, 23 mm wide, grayish, largest groups 810 mm diam; chaff scales in 5 ± vertical ranks, longest 3.34.1 mm; outer chaff scales bent abruptly inward above fruit, tightly closed, body very hard
Pistillate flowers in 48 series; inner 930 flowers not subtended by chaff scales
Disk flowers 35; corollas 2.23 mm, lobes 4, generally brownish to yellowish
Fruit: outer fruit ascending, 0.91 mm, ± bent, compressed side-to-side; inner fruit sparsely papillate; pappus bristles 1930, 2.23 mm, falling in a ring
Ecology: Common, weedy. Bare or grassy places
Elevation: < 1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: also in nw Baja California, Hawaii, Chile; native to Mediterranean
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|