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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.



John C. Semple

Perennial from rhizome, ascending to erect, branched above
Leaves alternate, sessile, linear-lanceolate, 3–5-veined, entire, resin-dotted; margins finely scabrous
Inflorescence dense, sometimes flat-topped; heads radiate, subsessile; involucre ± ovoid; phyllaries in graded series, midrib generally ± swollen, translucent; receptable convex, naked, pitted
Ray flowers: ligules yellow
Disk flowers: corollas yellow, ± glabrous; style branches finely papillate, appendages narrowly triangular
Fruit fusiform; pappus bristles 25–45, long, in 1 whorl
Species in genus: ± 8 species: North America
Etymology: (Greek: well-crowded, from dense inflorescence)
Reference: [Sieren 1981 Rhodora 83: 551–579]


E. occidentalis Nutt.


Stems < 2 m, smooth, sometimes ± white
Leaves < 10 cm, < 6 mm wide; lower deciduous; middle largest
Inflorescence large, panicle-like, ± resinous; branches ascending; involucre 3–5 mm; phyllaries in 3–4 series
Ray flowers 15–25; ligules 1.5–2.5 mm
Disk flowers 6–15; corollas 3–4 mm
Fruit 1 mm, strigose
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Ditches, marshes, streambanks, meadows
Elevation: < 2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except Desert)
Distribution outside California: to w Canada, north-central US, New Mexico, n Baja California
Flowering time: Jul–Nov
Synonyms: Solidago o. (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray
Horticultural information: IRR: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; INV.

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