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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

DIMORPHOTHECA

CAPE-MARIGOLD, AFRICAN DAISY

Elizabeth McClintock

Annual
Stems erect, generally branched
Leaves alternate, simple, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads radiate, solitary; peduncles long; phyllaries in 1 series, linear to lanceolate; receptacle flat or nearly so, naked
Ray flowers < 15; corollas yellow, blue, or variously colored
Disk flowers many; corolla with very short tube and long throat, generally yellow; anthers with ovate or triangular-ovate tips, sagittate at base, short-tailed; style branches very short, appendages widely obtuse
Fruit: ray achenes 3-angled, with knobby tubercles; disk achenes smooth, obovate, flattened, winged, pappus 0
Species in genus: ± 7 species: s Africa
Etymology: (Greek: 2 forms of fruits)
Reference: [Norlindh 1943 Studies in Calenduleae]

Introduced

D. sinuata DC.

Plants glandular-hairy
Stems 10–30 cm, simple or sparingly branched from base
Leaves < 10 cm; lower tapered to petiole-like base; upper sessile, blade oblong to oblanceolate, entire to coarsely dentate, upper smaller, sometimes linear
Inflorescence: heads 3–7 cm diam; involucre ± bell-shaped; phyllaries 10–15 mm, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, narrowly scarious-margined
Ray flowers: ligules 2–2.5 cm, orange to yellow, sometimes violet at base or tip
Disk flowers: corollas 4.5–5.5 mm, yellow or orange, often purple-tipped
Fruit: ray achenes 4–5 mm; disk achenes 6–7 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Uncommon. Escape from cultivated, roadsides, disturbed places, sometimes sown in wildflower mixes
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Joaquin Valley, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: native to s Africa

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