Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.



G. Ledyard Stebbins

Annual, biennial, perennial herb from taproot; sap milky
Stems erect, < 8 dm
Leaves basal or cauline, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads ligulate, clustered in cymes; phyllaries in 2 distinct series; receptacle naked
Flowers 5–60; ligules yellow, readily withering
Fruit tapered at both ends, sometimes beaked; pappus of many soft, hair-like bristles
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially n hemisphere
Etymology: (Greek: sandal, for unknown reason)
Sexual forms of native species are distinct but (except C. nana, C. runcinata) connected by many asexually reproducing forms of hybrid origin that obscure boundaries. Asexual forms are all placed in the same sp. as sexual forms, except for the asexual group described under the name C. intermedia, for which no key is attempted
Horticultural information: TRY.


C. occidentalis Nutt.

Perennial from deep taproot; herbage densely gray-tomentose, without spreading, glandless or glandular hairs
Stems 1.5–4 dm, branched from base or middle
Leaves 10–30 cm, toothed to deeply lobed
Inflorescence: heads 10–30, clustered in cymes; involucre 11–19 mm; outer phyllaries linear to deltate; inner phyllaries lanceolate, acute, tomentose and sometimes with short, gland-tipped hairs
Flowers 9–40
Fruit 6–10 mm, tapered to both ends, beakless, strongly 10–18-ribbed, light to dark brown; pappus dusky to white
Chromosomes: 2n=22,33,44,55,66,77,88
Ecology: Dry terraces, mtn slopes
Elevation: 800–2700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, se San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Hamilton), Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: to w Canada, Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico
Flowering time: Jun–Aug
Plants called subspp. conjuncta (Jeps.) Babc. & Stebbins, costata (A. Gray) Babc. & Stebbins, and pumila (Rydb.) Babc. & Stebbins intergrade extensively. Highly variable; including genes from most or all of the dry-land montane species

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