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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

CREPIS

HAWKSBEARD

G. Ledyard Stebbins

Annual, biennial, perennial herb from taproot; sap milky
Stems erect, < 8 dm
Leaves basal or cauline, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads ligulate, clustered in cymes; phyllaries in 2 distinct series; receptacle naked
Flowers 5–60; ligules yellow, readily withering
Fruit tapered at both ends, sometimes beaked; pappus of many soft, hair-like bristles
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially n hemisphere
Etymology: (Greek: sandal, for unknown reason)
Sexual forms of native species are distinct but (except C. nana, C. runcinata) connected by many asexually reproducing forms of hybrid origin that obscure boundaries. Asexual forms are all placed in the same sp. as sexual forms, except for the asexual group described under the name C. intermedia, for which no key is attempted
Horticultural information: TRY.

Native

C. intermedia A. Gray

Perennial from stout taproot
Stems 3–7 dm, stout, branched near middle or above, tomentose
Leaves: basal 15–40 cm, tomentose, lobes narrowly triangular, often bearing small 2° lobes; cauline similar, smaller
Inflorescence: heads many; involucre 10–16 mm, cylindric to bell-shaped; outer phyllaries small, lanceolate-deltate; inner phyllaries 7–10, densely and evenly tomentose, sometimes glandular
Flowers 7–12
Fruit 5.5–9 mm, narrowed at both ends, 10–12-ribbed, yellow, buff, or brown; pappus dusky to white
Chromosomes: 2n=33,44,55,88
Ecology: Dry slopes, open forest
Elevation: 1400–3300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Washington, w Canada, Wyoming, Colorado
Flowering time: Jun–Aug
Complex series of asexually reproducing forms, probably of hybrid origin, combining characters of C. acuminata, C. modocensis, C. occidentalis, C. pleurocarpa.

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