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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.



David J. Keil and Charles E. Turner

Species in genus: 1 sp.: Eur
Etymology: (Latin: from Greek name for safflower)


C. benedictus L.

Annual < 6 dm
Stems generally branched throughout, generally reddish, ± loosely tomentose
Leaves ± cauline, alternate, sessile, short decurrent or tapered to winged petiole, 6–25 cm, (ob)lanceolate, spine-toothed or pinnately lobed, strongly veined, sparsely hairy, gland-dotted
Inflorescence: heads disciform, sessile among leaf-like bracts; involucre 2–4 cm, ± spheric; outer phyllaries ovate, base appressed, spine tips spreading, inner phyllaries lanceolate, spine tips pinnately divided; receptacle bristly
Sterile flowers few, marginal; corollas very slender, lobes 3, linear
Disk flowers many; corollas ± 2 cm, yellow, lobes linear; anther bases sagittate, tips long-appendaged; style tip minutely hair-ringed just below rounded lobes
Fruit ± 8 mm, cylindric, ribbed, attached laterally, glabrous; top with 10-toothed rim; pappus 2 series of awns, outer ± 10 mm, smooth or rough, inner 2–5 mm, rough from short, spreading hairs
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Roadsides, fields, waste places
Elevation: < 800 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, w Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: native to Europe
Flowering time: Apr–Jul

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