|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to trees, some dioecious
Stem: nodes often swollen
Leaves simple, basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally entire; stipules 0 or obvious and fused into a generally scarious sheath around stem
Inflorescence: small cluster, axillary or arrayed in cymes or panicles; involucres sometimes subtending 1many flowers
Flower generally bisexual, small, ± radial; perianth generally 56-lobed, base ± tapered, often jointed to pedicel; stamens 29, often in 2 whorls; ovary superior, styles generally 3, generally fused at base
Fruit: achene, generally enclosed by persistent perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid, and glabrous
Genera in family: 50 genera, 1100 species: worldwide, especially n temp; some cultivated for food (Fagopyrum ; Rheum , rhubarb; Rumex , sorrel) or ornamental (Antigonon , coral-vine; Muehlenbeckia ; Polygonum )
Reference: [Ronse Decraene & Akeroyd 1988 Bot J Linn Soc 98:321371; Reveal et al. 1989 Phytologia 66(24):83414]
Treatments of the 15 eriogonoid genera are based on the monographic work of James L. Reveal, who is gratefully acknowledged.
Annual, perennial herb, shrub, vine
Stem prostrate to erect, or climbing, or floating, < 3 m
Leaves generally cauline, alternate, sessile or petioled; stipules fused, sheathing stem above nodes, generally scarious or membranous; blade sometimes obviously jointed to stipule sheath
Inflorescence: unit a 18-flowered cluster, these arrayed singly or in head-like to open panicles
Flower: perianth lobes generally 5; stamens 38, filaments generally wider at base
Fruit generally ovoid, 3-angled, sometimes round, flat, indented; shiny to dull, brown to black
Species in genus: ± 300 species: worldwide, especially n temp
Etymology: (Greek: many knees, from swollen nodes of some species)
Reference: [Ronse Decraene & Ackeroyd 1988 Bot J Linn Soc 98:321371]
Segregate genera (e.g., Bistorta, Fallopia, Persicaria ) are sometimes recognized.
Stem generally erect, 380 cm, ± angled; ribs 0 or obscure
Leaf < 8 cm, sessile; blade linear, elliptic, or oblanceolate, smaller upward, vein 1
Inflorescence 520 cm, open or dense
Flower: perianth 25 mm, opening or not, pink or white, margins and midribs generally red or green; stamens generally 8(38, may vary within plant)
Fruit 25 mm, black, shiny
Ecology: Common. Open, slopes, dry meadows
Elevation: < 3500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (especially mtns, coast)
Distribution outside California: to Canada, e N.America
Variable intergrading complex; subspp. maintained in mixed populations merge over geog range. Generally self-pollinating. Homopteran insect parasites shorten stem, broaden leaves, enlarge and sterilize flowers in infected plants. Further study warranted.
Stem 550 cm
Leaves persistent, < 3 cm, all elliptic, gradually smaller upward
Inflorescence ± open, ± leafy
Flower: perianth ± 2 mm, closed or ± open; fertile stamens 38
Fruit 23 mm, erect; perianth stalk 0
Ecology: Dry forests, open rocky places
Elevation: 12002800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho
Many plants are intermediate to subsp. douglasii , but both subspp. may grow together without local intergradation. Rocky Mtn plants called P. sawatchense Small have been placed here but may warrant separate status.